Developing a MEAN app with Angular 2.0

I know, I know it is too early to be building end to end apps with Angular 2.0, but I got so excited after looking at ng2-express-starter by my dear friend Antonio Fernandes. I was like, If we can integrate an Angular 2.0 app with an Express app, we can definitely add the MongoDB layer to make it a M.E.A.N. app. So, in this post, we will be developing a MEAN Todo App (Grrr..). This post is heavily inspired by Antonio’s Angular 2.0 Express starter app.

The final app would look like

Screen Shot 2015-04-29 at 1.48.10 pm Screen Shot 2015-04-29 at 1.49.06 pm Screen Shot 2015-04-29 at 1.50.02 pm

You can play with a live instance of the above app here. (It might take upto a minute to load the page, please be patient or open the dev tools – network tab to check progress).

You can find the completed code here.

Couple of things before we proceed

  1. Thumbs up to Tim Jacobi for creating angular2-education repo, which consists of lot of useful links to learn Angular 2.0
  2. Angular 2.0 is still in development. The todo app we are going to build is developed using Angular 2.0 2.0.0-alpha. There is a very good chance that most or all of this code can be of no help when Angular 2.0 becomes stable.


If you are new to Angular 2.0 check out

  1. Getting Started with Angular 2.0
  2. Tim Jacobi’s angular2-education repo

If you are new to MEAN Stack development check out

  1. MEAN Stack – A Hands on Tutorial (with Angular 1.x)
  2. MEAN Stack Workshop


A MEAN stack app would typically consist of a server layer built with Nodejs & Express – Express being the web framework. MongoDB for data persistence & Angular as the client side MVW framework.

ng2As you can see from the above diagram, Express exposes REST End points that would be consumed by the Angular 2.0 app. And when any request is made to the REST end point, Express contacts MongoDB and manages the data.

This is pretty much our architecture.

Note : If you are looking for creating a secure REST API with Nodejs checkout : Architecting a Secure RESTful Node.js App.

Setting up the Server

First, we are going to setup an express app, build the REST API to Create, Read, Update & Delete todos and then integrate it with the Angular app.

Create a folder named ng2do-mean-app. Open a terminal/prompt here and run

npm init

Fill up the details as applicable.

Next, we will add express dependencies to our project. Run

npm install --save body-parser cookie-parser ejs express mongojs morgan path

This will download the required dependencies to run the express app. Once the above installation is done, your package.json should look like

At the root of the ng2do-mean-app create a file named server.js. Update it as below

This is a typical express server. Couple of things, on line 7, 8 we are including two sets of routes and on line 24, 25 we are mapping the routes to end points.

Next, we are going to create the routes folder and the two route files we declared above.

Create a new folder named routes at the root of ng2do-mean-app folder. Create a file named index.js inside the routes folder. And update index.js as below

We define a route to handle the http://localhost:3000/  and dispatch the index.html file.

Next, at the same level as index.js, create another file named todos.js. Update todos.js as below

Things to notice

Line 4 : I have created a new MongoDB instance for this example from MongoLab and configured it with Mongojs.

Line 7 : Endpoint to get all todos

Line 18 : Endpoint to get one todo based on the id provided

Line 31 : Endpoint to save a todo

Line 50 : Endpoint to update a todo

Line 79 : Endpoint to delete a todo


If you save all the file and run

node server.js

the express server would start on port 3000. If you navigate to  http://localhost:3000/api/v1/todos, you should be able to see all the todos (if any & if you have setup everything correctly). You can use Postman or any REST Client to test the remaining methods as well.

Pretty sweet right! Our REST API is completed. Now from our Angular 2.0 app, we are going to connect to the above REST API and manage our UI.

Setup the Client

The first thing we would be doing as part of the client side development is to download the Angular 2.0 starter app. This starter app consists of all the Angular 2.0 code and its dependencies.

From the root of ng2do-mean-app folder, run

git clone public/vendor

As of today, the quickstart project does not ship with Angular 2.0 2.0.0-alpha source, which is needed for our project. To update the same, we will run the following commands from inside the public/vendor folder

npm install


npm install rx --save

The above steps are NEEDED till the quickstart project ships with Angular 2.0 2.0.0-alpha release.

Next, to manage client side dependencies, we are going to use bower. We will create a new bower.json file. From the project root, run

bower init

This will create a new bower.json file and it should look something like

Next, create a file at the same level as bower.json named .bowerrc. This file will consists of bower config. Update .bowerrc as below

Now, we will add Twitter Bootstrap to our app. Run

bower install bootstrap --save

This should download the Bootstrap source and place it inside the public/vendor/bower_components folder.

If you do remember, in routes/index.js we have a route that dispatches the index.html file. We will create that index.html file now.

Create a new folder named views at the root of our project & inside views create a new file named index.html. Update index.html as below.

Things to notice

Line 5 : We have included bootstrap css that we have downloaded using bower

Line 7 : The es6 shim file

Line 12 : Init our base component – todo-app

Line 18 : Paths where our assets are located

Line 28 : Kick off the app

In the next steps, we are going to create all the referenced files.

Client Side code structure

As of today, Angular 2.0 support only HTTP GET request using the XHR module. So, I have borrowed Antonio’s approach for making a HTTP GET, POST, PUT, DELETE calls.

So this is how we are going to structure the app


We will have a Todo App component, that will interact with the Todo Factory, which in turn uses the XHR factory to work with the REST API.

Developing the App

The first thing we are going to do is develop the todo-app component. Create a new folder named components inside the public folder. And create a new folder named todo-app inside the components folder.

Inside todo-app create a new file named todo-app.es6. Update todo-app.es6 as below

Things to notice

Line 1 : We import Component, View, bootstrap, For from Angular 2 source

Line 2 : We import TodoFactory, which we will be creating a bit later

Line 5 : We create a new component identified by the selector todo-app

Line 9 : We are going to load the template for this view from an external file and also specify what directives would be using, so that Angular can inject them.

Line 15 : We create a TodoAppComponent that consists of the component definition.

Line 17 : We create a new variable named todos  of type Array.

Line 19 : Inside the constructor method, we are going to fetch the list of todos using  TodoFactory.getAll() and assign the same to todos. This will take care of loading any existing todos on page load.

Line 27 : This method is used to add a new todo to our DB. When the user enters a Todo and hits the return key, we fetch the text, create a todo object and call the passing in the todo to be saved. Once we get a response, we update the local  todos with the response from the server, to keep things in sync.

Line 42 : This method is used to update the todo text in the DB. It is pretty much same as the addTodo() except, this time we have a _id  associate with the todo and we use TodoFactory.update() to update the data against the given todo.

Line 59 : This method is used to update the todo status, i.e. the todo completion. Here we pick the todo’s isCompleted property and build a todo object. We then call the same  TodoFactory.update() to update the data.

Line 74 : This method is used to delete a Todo. We pass the Id of the todo to be deleted to TodoFactory.delete() and the todo gets deleted from the DB. Once the server responds with a success, we clear the same from the local todos  array to save a DB call.

Line 91 : This is a utility method, that helps us manage the state of the todo. When clicked on the Edit button, next to the todo, we set isEditMode  to true and when we are done editing, we set isEditMode  to false.

Finally on line 101, we bootstrap the TodoAppComponent.

Next, we are going to create the template. Inside the todo-app folder, create another file named todo-app.html. Update todo-app.html as below

Before digging into the file, we will look at three changes to Angular 2.0 templating syntax.

  • Variable are declared using a hash before them – #name
  • Event Handlers are declared using a parenthesis around them – (click)
  • Property binding are done using square braces – [class]

Keeping the above in mind, we will go through the above template

Line 6 : We create a input element, which is bound to a local variable named todotext which is represented by  #todotext on the tag. We have bound a  (keyup) event that calls  addTodo() in our component definition.

Line 11 : If there are no todos, we show a message – No Todos yet!. This is achieved using  [hidden] property binding

Line 14 : We use the  *for syntax (analogous to ng-repeat) to iterate over all the todos in our collection and display them. Also do notice  [class.strike], (analogous to ng-class) if the current todo is in a completed state, we want to add a class named strike.

Line 16 : We provide a check box for the user to check or uncheck the todo. The state of the checkbox is maintained by  [checked]="todo.isCompleted". And when a user clicks on the checkbox, we set the value of isCompleted for that todo from updateStatus().

Line 19 : We display the todo text if it is not in edit mode

Line 20, 21 : we show the editable text box and a cancel button when the todo is in edit mode.

Line 24 : Button to toggle edit mode

Line 25 : Button to delete a todo

Now you can figure out what is happening on a tag based on the 3 new changes we saw earlier. Also, the classes which you see here are specific to Twitter Bootstrap.

That is it, our todo-app component is ready.

Now, we need to develop the two services. Create a new folder inside the public folder named services. Create a new file inside it named todos-factory.es6 and update it as below

Quite self explanatory.

Important : Angular 2.0 DOES NOT have a $http service. I have created one using the xhr-factory and named it to $http for familiarity sakes.

Next, create a new file named xhr-factory.es6 inside the public/services folder and update it as below

All we are doing is making a HTTP Request using the XMLHttpRequest() and returning a promise.

Pretty simple right! With this we are done with app logic. For some styling, we will create a new folder inside the public folder named css. Inside the css folder, create a new file named app.css and update it as below.

Test the App

That is it! Save all your files and run

node server.js

Next, navigate to  http://localhost:3000 and you should see

Screen Shot 2015-04-29 at 1.48.10 pm

Add a few todos and you can click on edit

Screen Shot 2015-04-29 at 1.49.06 pm

You can mark todos as completed or delete them

Screen Shot 2015-04-29 at 1.50.02 pm

Simple and sweet MEAN App with Angular 2.0

Thanks for reading! Do comment.


Pushbots and Cordova – Easy Push Notifications for your app

A few days ago Francisco Merino requested a post for implementing push notifications for a Phonegap/Cordova app. He was looking for a simple solution to start off. So, here is the post.

In this post, we will be sending push notifications to a device using the Pushbots dashboard as well from its Nodejs API.

Pushbots’s notification service is pretty simple to use and is one of the best solution if you are planning to send notification to all the devices at once. You can read more about pushbots here.

A quick demo of the app we are building

You can find the completed code here.

So, let us get started.

What is a Push Notification?

If you are new to push notifications, take a look at this

Setup Pushbots

Navigate to the Pushbots Signup page and create an account. You will be sent an activation mail and once you activate your account, you can login. You will be taken to your dashboard, and it should look something like

Screen Shot 2015-04-20 at 9.42.10 am

From the bottom of this page, create a new app. Let is calls it testPushApp and hit the return key. This will create a new project.

Next, we need to obtain the Apple Push Certificate and Android’s GCM API Key. You can follow the step by step guide below

After you have obtained the GMC API key and the Apple’s Push certificate, you need to head back to your app on Pushbots, Click on settings and update the same inside the Platforms’s Tab

Screen Shot 2015-04-27 at 10.36.30 am

Develop the App

Once you have the GCM sender ID and API Key or Apple’s Push Certificate, we will scaffold a new Cordova app. For this post, I will be using only Android’s GCM values.

Create a new folder named testPushApp. Now, scaffold a new Cordova project. Open a new terminal/prompt inside the testPushApp folder and run

cordova create myApp testPushApp

Note : Make sure you have Nodejs installed and then Cordova installed globally before executing the above statement. If you run into any issues refer PhoneGap 3 CLI Setup on Mac & Windows.

The above command will create a new Cordova project. To test the scaffolded app, CD into myApp folder and run

cordova platform add browser

Next, we will run the app.

cordova run

and you should the app launch in you browser and it should look like

Screen Shot 2015-04-20 at 10.37.01 am

Next, we will add Android and iOS platforms.

cordova platform add android


cordova platform add ios

After that we will add the pushbots Cordova plugin.

cordova plugin add com.pushbots.push

Once the plugin is installed, open www/js/index.js and update the  onDeviceReady() as shown below

Things to notice

55347ccb17795958748b457c – is the application id from your Pushbots dashboard

Screen Shot 2015-04-27 at 10.40.46 am

145091056519 – is the GCM project Number from your Google developer console

Screen Shot 2015-04-27 at 10.42.33 amThis all the setup you would need to integrate Pushbots with your Cordova App for iOS. For Android there is one more step.

After you have added Android platform to the current project and installed the pushbots plugin, a new file named pushbots.xml will be created at /platforms/android/res/values/pushbots.xml. Open that file and update it as below

You can get the values from the previous step.

That is it!!! Now, we can test the app.

Test the App

I am going to deploy this app on to my Android phone by running

cordova prepare

cordova run android

This will install the app on my device. Now if I head back to the Pushbots dashboard, and select the testPushApp you should see the number of devices updated

Screen Shot 2015-04-27 at 10.51.57 am

Now, click on Send a push link and you can enter a text and send it to all devices or only to devices you wish to target (using the segmentation button below the message box).

When the notification is sent, you can checkout the same on your device


Simple and sweet!

And if you want to launch a webpage when the user clicks on the notification, it is as simple as adding a custom field named openURL and the value is the link.

Screen Shot 2015-04-27 at 11.04.34 am

And when you send this notification,

Screenshot_2015-04-27-11-04-58When the user clicks on the notification, a web page with that link would be opened.

Implementing Notifications from a Nodejs App

So far, we have used the Pushbots dashboard to send the notification. Now, we are going to send push notification programatically, thanks to the NPM module named pushbots.

Inside the testPushApp folder, create another folder named myNodeApp, which is at the same level as myApp (Cordova app). Open a terminal/prompt here and run

npm init

This will create a package.json file and should look something like

Next, we will add pushbots module to our project and save it in package.json. Run

npm install pushbots --save

Create a new file named index.js at the root of the myNodeApp folder. And add the below code.

Things to notice

Line 4, 5 : You can get the ID and secret from the Pushbots dashboard, key’s tab

Screen Shot 2015-04-27 at 11.19.55 amLine 7 : The message you would like to send. 1 as the last argument indicates an Android device and 0 an iOS device. You read more about the API API V1.

Line 8 : The custom field property, to open a URL

Line 11 : Send the push notification.

If you save the file and run

node index.js

You should see

Screen Shot 2015-04-27 at 11.17.55 am

And on your device


Hope this post gave you an idea on how to implement Push Notifications. Do remember, this same logic can be ported to any Cordova app, be it Ionic or Framework7.

Another widely used push notification service is PushPlugin from the Phongap team. You can check out that too.

PS : The API keys’s and ID’s shown in the video or the code would not work for you, as I have already deleted those projects.

Thanks for reading! Do comment.

Getting Started with Client Side Storage

In this post, we will take a look at various client side storage solutions and how to work with them.

We are going to cover the following

  • Cookies
  • Web Storage API
    • Session Storage
    • Local Storage
    • String Compression
  • IndexedDB
  • Next Steps

You can find the completed code in the below examples here.


There was a time when client side storage was all about saving data in cookies. Cookies were designed initially not to save data offline but rather save the established session details and send it with every request to the server.

 … a way to create a stateful session with Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests and responses.  It describes three new headers, Cookie, Cookie2, and Set-Cookie2, which carry state information between participating origin servers and user agents.  The method described here differs from Netscape’s Cookie proposal [Netscape], but it can interoperate with HTTP/1.0 user agents that use Netscape’s method.

You can read more : rfc2965

Back to storage with Cookies. For instance, you have a very long form to be filled in by the user. If the user refreshes the page accidentally while filling the form, you want to save the data and populate it back. And at the same time, you do not want to send this partial data to the server. This should be saved on the client side. And this is how we would implement this using cookies.

You would have a long form like

I have used only 2 form fields for simplicity. Also, I have used Twitter Bootstrap for styling. This form can be how ever long you want and how many ever form elements you want (select, radio, textarea, etc..).

And the JS code to control this would be

Things to notice

Line 5 :  A wrapper API to work with cookies. Create, Read, Delete

Line 38 : When the document is ready, we register for blur events on the form elements. And when the call back is triggered, we create a new cookie passing the cookieName, the entire form data and days to expire to  createCookie().

Line 50 : On page load, we check if there is any pre-saved data available. If yes, we read the same and populate it

Line 66 : And the form is submitted successfully, we delete the saved cookie.

And when you fill the form and “accidentally” refresh, you should the see the saved data populate. And when you inspect the saved cookies and you should see

Screen Shot 2015-04-19 at 8.41.32 am

And when submit, you should see the cookie removed.

Size Limitations :

If you want to support most browsers, then don’t exceed 50 cookies per domain, and don’t exceed 4093** bytes per domain (i.e. total size of all cookies <= 4093 bytes).

You can read more : Browser Cookie Limits.

For me the biggest problem with cookies is that, the browser sends all the cookies related to that domain with every HTTP request. Which does not sound very “Client Side Storage” for me.

Then came along HTML5 with it’s arsenal of storage solutions.

Web Storage API

The Web Storage API provides mechanisms by which browsers can securely store key/value pairs, in a much more intuitive fashion than using cookies.

The two mechanisms within Web Storage are as follows:

  • sessionStorage maintains a separate storage area for each given origin that’s available for the duration of the page session (as long as the browser is open, including page reloads and restores)
  • localStorage does the same thing, but persists even when the browser is closed and reopened.

You can read more about the Web Storage API from MDN here.

As you see from below support

Screen Shot 2015-04-19 at 9.18.22 am

there is about 94% support for Web Storage API across all browsers. Which is good as we can consider this to be a reliable solution in almost all cases.

Session Storage

Taking the above example, of saving a long form, we will implement the same using session storage API. The HTML for the page would remain the same. The JS code would look like

Things to notice

Line 1 : A wrapper around sessionStorage API.

Line 8 : We create a method to check sessionStorage support.

Line 12, 16 : Save and retrieve string based data. The Storage API saves all the values in the form of string. So any value as in a string, number, boolean can be saved and retrieved using these methods.

Line 26, 30 : These methods are used to save and retrieve Objects and Arrays. You can read more about this here : Storing Objects in HTML5 Local Storage.

Line 34 : A method to remove an item from the sessionStorage

Line 38 : A  method to clear all items from the sessionStorage

Line 47 : We check if sessionStorage is supported, else we throw an alert

Line 51 : We register a blur event on the form elements. And when the listener fires, we get the form data, convert it to an object and save it

Line 68 : We check if anything is already stored in the sessionStorage. If yes, we populate the form.

Line 76 : When the form saves the data successfully, we clear the sessionStorage.

You can inspect the Session Storage saved data and you should see.

Screen Shot 2015-04-19 at 10.01.37 amIn the above case, if the form fields are dependent on a session then the session storage is perfect. Because if the form changes for the same user for a different session, the old data will not clash with the new data.

Local Storage

What if you are looking for a way to persist the data even after the user’s session expires. The answer is simple, Local Storage API.

The transformation from Session Storage to Local Storage is as simple as replacing the word Session with Local. The updated JS file would look like

Things to notice

Line 1 : A wrapper around localStorage API.

Line 8 : We create a method to check localStorage support.

Line 12, 14 : Save and retrieve string based data. The Storage API saves all the values in the form of string. So any value as in a string, number, boolean can be saved and retrieved using these methods.

Line 26, 30 : These methods are used to save and retrieve Objects and Arrays. You can read more about this Storing Objects in HTML5 Local Storage.

Line 34 : A method to remove an item from the localStorage

Line 38 : A  method to clear all items from the localStorage

Line 47 : We check if localStorage is supported, else we throw an alert

Line 51 : We register a blur event on the form elements. And when the listener fires, we get the form data, convert it to an object and save it

Line 68 : We check if anything is already stored in the localStorage. If yes, we populate the form.

Line 76 : When the form saves the data successfully, we clear the localStorage.

You can inspect the Local Storage saved data and you should see

Screen Shot 2015-04-19 at 10.15.53 amNow, even after rebooting the machine, this data will be persisted.

Size Limitations :

The size limitations for a given domain for the Storage API is dependent on the browser and the OS. If you check out Web Storage Support Test,

Screen Shot 2015-04-19 at 10.34.15 am

The above values are for Chrome 42 64bit. Also based on a lot of solutions on the internet, the storage seems to be around 5 MB.

You can read more : Is 5MB the de facto limit for W3C Web Storage?

String Compression

If you see that your storage needs seem to exceed the 5 MB quota, you can implement lz-string compression. You can checkout the demo page and see the compression factor

Screen Shot 2015-04-19 at 10.44.28 am

The implementation is pretty simple. First we include lz-string.min.js in our page. Then we will update the storage API to compress and decompress the string. The updated Local Storage API would be

On line 13 and line 31, we compress the string before we save it. And on line 19 and line 37, we decompress the string.

Note : On Firefox and IE, localStorage cannot contain invalid UTF16 characters. You need to use  LZString.compressToUTF16() and  LZString.decompressFromUTF16() if you are targeting IE and FF as part of your app. Else you can use  LZString.compress() &  LZString.decompress()

If you observed the save data, you should see the compressed string

Screen Shot 2015-04-19 at 10.51.25 am

You can implement the same API for Session Storage as we did above for Local Storage. Do notice that compressing adds an overhead to the get and set process. So use this only if needed.


IndexedDB is a way for you to persistently store data inside a user’s browser. Because it lets you create web applications with rich query abilities regardless of network availability, these applications can work both online and offline.

IndexedDB is an alternative to WebSQL Database, which the W3C deprecated on November 18, 2010. While both IndexedDB and WebSQL are solutions for storage, they do not offer the same functionalities. WebSQL Database is a relational database access system, whereas IndexedDB is an indexed table system.

Concepts of IndexedDB

  • IndexedDB databases store key-value pairs.
  • IndexedDB is built on a transactional database model.
  • The IndexedDB API is mostly asynchronous.
  • IndexedDB uses requests all over the place.
  • IndexedDB uses DOM events to notify you when results are available.
  • IndexedDB is object-oriented.
  • IndexedDB does not use Structured Query Language (SQL).
  • IndexedDB adheres to a same-origin policy.

You can read more about the above concepts here.

Before we start implementing IndexedDB, we need to go through its terminology.

  • database : A repository of information, typically comprising one or more object stores.
  • object store : The mechanism by which data is stored in the database.
  • version : When a database is first created, its version is the integer 1.
  • database connection : An operation created by opening a database.
  • transaction : An atomic and durable set of data-access and data-modification operations on a particular database.
  • request : The operation by which reading and writing on a database is done.
  • index : An index is a specialized object store for looking up records in another object store, called the referenced object store.

You can read more here.

Now that we have a basic understanding of what IndexedDB is all about, we will make use of it save our form offline. Yes, this use case is not an ideal example for IndexedDB. It can do a lot more.

If you are planning to use the IndexedDB API as is, you can do so by following this tutorial : Using IndexedDB. To keep things simple and interesting, I am going to use an awesome IndexDB wrapper named Dexie.js.

Dexie has a huge API that helps a lot while interacting with IndexedDB. You can read more about Dexie from its very well documented wiki.

Back to our example. We will be implementing offline storage of our form using IndexedDB via Dexie. The HTML for the form will remain the same. After you include dexie.js in your page, you can write your logic as follows

Things to notice

Line 3 : We create a new database named longForm

Line 5 :  We create a new auto incrementing index. You can read more about Schema definition syntax here.

Line 8 : We connect to the DB. On successful connection, we query the DB for any pre-saved data.

Line 10 : Once we get any pre-saved data, we populate our form on line 13.

Line 20 : On blur of any form fields, we collect the latest form data

Line 32 : We delete any existing data before we save a fresh copy.

Line 39 : When the form is successfully submitted, we will delete the DB.

When you inspect the data, it should look like

Screen Shot 2015-04-19 at 2.15.30 pm

Next Steps

With this, we have completed the most prominent offline storage solution available today. I recommend taking a look at the following as next steps

I will keep adding more resources as I get.

Thanks for reading! Do comment.